施用草甘膦对桉树人工林土壤性质的影响毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

施用草甘膦对桉树人工林土壤性质的影响毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

桉树是我国三大速生树种之一,因其生长速度快、适应性强轮伐期短,在我国南方热带地区大面积种植。草甘膦是一种高效除草剂,对灭除各种杂草及小灌木具有良好的效果且对人体及环境危害较小。因此,除草剂草甘膦对各种杂草和灌木有良好的清除效果,广泛运用于林地。为研究施用草甘膦对按树生长情况、林下植被多样性和土壤性质的影响,为探究草甘膦对土壤性质的影响,以福建漳州桉树人工林为研究对象,在同一样地区域,设定两个对照样地,施用草甘膦作为处理组和不施用草甘膦作为对照组,采集土样分析土壤物理性质、化学性质和生物学性质。 本研究以按树林为研究对象,以施用草甘膦与不施用草甘膦为两个对照,调查林下植被情况,为了研究草甘膦对按树林生长及土壤性质的影响,取得的主要结论如下:

(1)施用草甘膦对土壤容重、总孔隙度、毛管孔隙度、非毛管孔隙度、电导率、全氮含量、水解氮含量、全磷含量、有效磷含量、全钾含量、速效钾含量没有显著影响。

(2)施用草甘膦对对0~2 cm表层土壤pH、有效磷含量、有机质含量具有显著影响。表明施用草甘膦主要影响表层土壤,并且随着土壤深度的增加影响程度越小。

关键词:草甘膦;桉树人工林;土壤性质

Effects of Glyphosate on Undergrowth and Soil Properties of Eucalyptus Plantation

Abstract

Eucalyptus is one of the three fast-growing tree species in China. Because of its fast growth and strong adaptability, it has been planted in a large area in the tropical areas of southern China. Glyphosate is an efficient herbicide, which has good effect on weeds and shrubs and has less harm to human body and environment. Therefore, the herbicide glyphosate has a good effect on weeds and shrubs, and is widely used in forest land. In order to study the effects of glyphosate on tree growth, undergrowth vegetation diversity and soil properties, and to explore the effects of glyphosate on soil properties, two control plots were set up in Zhangzhou Eucalyptus plantation of Fujian Province in the same area. Soil samples were collected and analyzed with glyphosate as treatment group and without glyphosate as control group. Chemical and biological properties. In order to study the effects of glyphosate on the understory vegetation and soil properties, this study investigated the understory vegetation of forest by comparing the application of glyphosate with the non-application of glyphosate.

In order to study the effects of glyphosate on the understory vegetation and soil properties, this study investigated the understory vegetation of forest by comparing the application of glyphosate with the non-application of glyphosate.

CONCLUSION (1) The soil bulk density, total porosity, capillary porosity, non-capillary porosity, electrical conductivity, total nitrogen content, hydrolytic nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, available phosphorus content, total potassium content, available potassium content are not affected by glyphosate application.

(2) There were significant effects on soil pH, available phosphorus content, organic matter content in 0-2 cm topsoil. The results showed that glyphosate application mainly affected the surface soil, and the effect was less with the increase of soil depth.

Key words: eucalyptus plantation; biodiversity; soil properties;;

目录

1 前言 – 1 –

1.1 桉树林的研究现状 – 1 –

1.2 草甘膦的研究进展 – 2 –

1.2.1 草甘膦的性质 – 2 –

1.2.2 草甘膦对土壤性质的影响 – 3 –

1.3 研究意义 – 3 –

2 材料与方法 – 4 –

2.1.研究区域概况 – 4 –

2.2 样地设置、土壤样品的采集 – 4 –

2. 3 数据处理与分析 – 4 –

3结果与分析 – 5 –

3. 1 施使用草甘膦对桉树生长量的影响 – 5 –

3.2 草甘膦对桉树土壤性质的影响 – 5 –

3.2.1 施用草甘膦对土壤物理性质的影响 – 5 –

3.2.2 施用草甘膦对土壤化学性质的影响 – 6 –

4 结论 – 10 –

5致谢 – 11 –

参考文献 – 12 –

1 前言

桉树生长速度快、轮伐期短、适应性强,在我国南方地区大面积种植。南方地区气候温暖湿润适合各种杂草和小灌木的生长,杂草和小灌木快速的生长势必会和桉树幼苗竞争阳光、水分和养分,影响桉树的生长。草甘膦是一种光谱除草剂可以有效地清除各种杂草和小灌木,但过量且频繁地施用草甘膦,会造成草甘膦残留在土壤中进而污染土壤导致土壤质量下降,甚至会影响人体健康。鉴于草甘膦污染的广泛性,研究其危害、迁移转化过程及降解方式,才能有效地解决草甘膦污染问题。

1.1 桉树林的研究现状

桉树原产澳大利亚,品种多达900多种,我国主要引种巨桉、蓝桉、邓恩桉、赤桉等,主要分布广西、福建、广东、云南等地,种植面积位居世界前三。随着我国桉树种植规模日益扩大,促进了当地GDP的增长,提高林农的收入,桉树的生态效益和社会效益也受到了更多人的关注[1]。目前,对桉树的引种缺乏科学、全面、清晰地认识,在桉树的种植方式上没有做到科学管理,所以国内外对种植桉树带来的生态环境问题,至今没有定论。对于引种桉树带来的影响,专家学者有不同的评论,一些研究者认为引种桉树有利于改善当地的生态环境,对生态系统有积极的影响[2];也有研究者认为引种桉树对当地的生态环境产生不利影响[3]。目前,我国桉树人工林主要围绕桉树林人工林对林下植被多样性的影响、桉树林连载对土壤性质的影响、桉树人工林生物量以及桉树林引种的生态环境效应等方面研究[4]

桉树林作为一种外来物种,大面积种植可能会影响当地林下植被的物种多样性。刘平等研究发现桉树人工林物种多样性变化规律复杂且不明显,但在荒地、低灌林地种植桉树不仅可以创造经济价值,同时可以提高林地植物的种类和植物群落的多样性[5]。田湘等通过对比分析人工抚育和未抚育的桉树人工林下植被,结果表明,人工抚育的按树林灌木的个体密度、高度,草本植物的密度和林下植物的物种丰富度比未抚育的林地降低[6]。平亮等认为大多数桉树人工林林下植被物种多样性低于天然林和乡土树种人工林,但高于其他外来树种人工林,林下植被物种多样性降低的主要原因是桉树的生理生态特性和人为因素,其中认为因素起主导作用[7]

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