4种地被竹的化学计量研究毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

4种地被竹的化学计量研究毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

竹子是重要的森林资源,具有生长快,材质好,产量高,用途广等特点。地被竹为我国重要的竹种类型,对环境适应能力强,多用于植被修复与景观搭配方面。生态化学计量学以植物化学元素内平衡为基础,研究植物的生物学过程。本实验通过研究地上生物量分配探求每种竹类的生物学特性,以化学计量的角度研究菲白竹(Pleioblastus fortunei),鹅毛竹(Shibataea chinensis),箬竹(Indocalamus tessellatus),铺地竹(Sasa argenteastriatus)叶片C,N水平与对应土壤C,N水平之间的关系,为合理施肥,促进地被竹生长提供一定依据,主要研究结果如下:

(1)铺地竹叶片的生物量占比大,其叶片光合作用对铺地竹生长发育较其它三种竹类影响更大。

(2)4类竹种竹节长度与每节生物量间的相关性,地径长度与每株总干重间的相关性均为极显著相关,进而得出拟合函数公式。

(3)菲白竹,鹅毛竹对土壤中N元素的依赖性较大。箬竹,铺地竹对土壤中C元素的依赖性较大。

关键词:地被竹;生物量;化学计量特征

Studies on the stoichiometry of 4 kinds of dwarf bamboo

ABSTRACT

Bamboo is an important forest resource. It has the characteristics of fast growth, good material quality, high yield and wide use. Dwarf bamboo is an important bamboo species in China. It has strong adaptability to the environment and is mostly used for vegetation restoration and landscape collocation. Ecological stoichiometry studies the biological processes of plants based on the homeostasis of phytochemicals. In this experiment, the biological characteristics of each kind of bamboos were explored by the study of aboveground biomass distribution. The relationship between C, N level and the corresponding soil C and N level among Pleioblastus fortune, Shibataea chinensis, Indocalamus tessellatus, Sasa argenteastriatus was studied by the angle of stoichiometry. The main research results were as follows:

(1) The biomass of the S. argenteastriatus leaves is larger, and the photosynthesis of the leaves has greater influence on the growth and development of the S. argenteastriatus than the other three kinds of bamboos.

(2) The correlation between the length of 4 kinds of bamboo species and the biomass of each section, the correlation between the length of the ground diameter and the total dry weight of each plant was very significant.

(3) Pl. fortune and Sh. Chinensis have significant dependence on N elements in soil. In.tessellatus and S. argenteastriatus have significant dependence on C elements in soil.

Key words:dwarf bamboo ;biomass; stoichiometric characteristics

目 录

1 引言…………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1 研究目的与意义 ………………………………………………………………………1

1.2 国内外研究现状 ………………………………………………………………………2

1.2.1竹子生态化学计量研究进展………………………………………………………2

1.2.2地被竹特征 ………………………………………………………………………3

2 材料与方法 ……………………………………………………………………………5

2.1 研究地概况 …………………………………………………………………………………5

2.2 实验材料…………………………………………………………………………………5

2.3 实验设计方法 …………………………………………………………………………5

2.3.1 研究区域……………………………………………………………………………5

2.3.2样品分析 …………………………………………………………………………5

3 结果与分析…………………………………………………………………………………………7

3.1 4种地被竹生物量比较……………………………………………………………………6

3.2地被竹化学计量研究……………………………………………………………………10

3.2.1菲白竹………………………………………………………………………………12

3.2.2鹅毛竹………………………………………………………………………………13

3.2.3箬竹…………………………………………………………………………………14

3.2.4铺地竹………………………………………………………………………………15

4 结论与讨论 ………………………………………………………………………………………16

4.1 4种地被竹生物量分配………………………………………………………………………17

4.2 4种地被竹生物量比较………………………………………………………………………17

4.3 4种地被竹地上部分与生物量关系………………………………………………………………17

4.4土壤元素与4种地被竹……………………………………………………………………………18

4.5施肥讨论……………………………………………………………………………………………18

致谢 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………20

参考文献 …………………………………………………………………………………………………21

1 引言

    1. 研究目的与意义

竹子生长迅速、材质良好,广泛被用于建筑材料,家具设计和园林景观。中国竹林面积600万公顷,总产值达1600亿元。近年也呈逐渐提升的趋势。地被竹,指禾本科竹亚科中相对低矮、枝叶密度大,具较强伸展能力、快速覆盖地面且对污染具有一定抵抗能力的竹子类型,初步统计有6属54种。在相对复杂的地形地貌条件下,地被竹生长的适应性要高于其他竹种,所以地被竹的应用十分广泛。如铺地竹(Sasa srgenteastriatus)总体植株偏矮,叶片呈现深绿色,新生叶片长有黄或白色条纹,整体簇生;菲白竹(Pleioblastus fortunei)总体植株偏矮小,叶片多绿白色条纹相间,新生叶片外表润雅,奇特美观,生长茂盛;鹅毛竹(Sh. chinensis)竹秆纤细矮小,叶片卵状宽披针形,丛生,茂盛 [1];箬竹(Indocalamus tessellatus)竿高0.75-2m,直径4-7.5mm;节间长约25cm,最长可达32cm,圆筒形,叶片大型,宽披针形或长圆状披针形,具有一定实用和观赏价值。竹产品需求量逐年增加,不科学的竹林地生产经营导致部分竹林的衰败,产量不增反减。这类问题不仅与竹类自身光合,呼吸作用等植物习性有关,也与人类施肥,采伐竹材竹笋等活动有密切关联。所以,通过对竹类的生物学,生态学习性研究,了解不同竹种的生长习性,有助于掌握科学的竹林经营方法,观赏地被竹的日常防护,也有效防止环境污染,土壤养分流失。现阶段,对地被竹生物学特征,生态学习性,培育学的研究较碎片化,而生态化学计量(ecological stoichiometry)研究以植物元素内稳态的基础通过元素分析,元素比例,探究植物内生态的养分供求关系。

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