黄山怀玉山优先区保护空缺识别与网络优化毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

黄山怀玉山优先区保护空缺识别与网络优化毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

生物多样性是生物与环境形成的生态复合体以及与此相关的各种生态过程的总和,包括生态系统、物种和遗传多样性三个层次。生物多样性是人类赖以生存的条件,是社会经济可持续发展的基础,是生态安全和粮食安全的保障。因此,如何选择关键区域建立保护体系进行优先保护受到了广泛关注。系统保护规划(Systematic Conservation Planning)是指保护规划不仅应当考虑自然性质和生物学范式,还应系统地考虑到保护区大小、连通性、边界长度以及建立保护区所需的经济和社会成本。不同于专家决策保护优先区选择,系统保护规划是一种基于数学模拟算法的规划方法,规划过程需要量化的保护目标、保护成本及边界紧密度。

目前,已有很多研究致力于讨论保护规划中整合保护效益和经济成本的重要性。为丰富解决该问题的思路,本文从系统保护规划理念出发,应用MARXAN模型软件对福建武夷山生物多样性保护优先区进行了保护重点评价和保护空缺识别。研究中采用专家评定和文献收集,选择30种植物和20种动物作为保护对象,通过模型计算,得到结果:保护重点区域主要在福建省武夷山保护重点区域面积为5169.1 km2,占优先区域总面积的11.68%。此外,通过对优先区现有各级自然保护区对比,可以得到,优先区保护空缺面积为3895.14 km2,占优先区总面积的8.79%,本文结合优先区生物多样性特点和社会经济发展现状,划定优先区生物多样性保护优先区域,所确定的优先或热点区域通常跨越几千到上百万平方公里,制定优先区生物多样性保护网络优化布局方案,并提出有针对性的优先区域保护和管理政策措施。对于生物多样性保护策略的制定,如保护地的布局,可持续的自然资源利用和管理方式,政府和国际保护资源的分配,保护行动的整体协调等具有重要的价值,更有利于提高保护成效。同时为可持续发展的决策提供重要依据。

关键词:系统保护规划;Marxan模型;生物多样性;保护重点;保护空缺

Key points and vacancy identification of priority protection of biodiversity protection in Wuyi Mountain, Fujian

ABSTRACT

Biodiversity is the sum of the ecological complexes formed by biology and the environment and the ecological processes associated with it, including ecosystems, species and genetic diversity. Biodiversity is the condition of human survival, is the basis of sustainable development of social economy, ecological security and food security protection. Therefore, how to choose a key area to establish a protection system for priority protection has received wide attention. Systematic conservation planning means that conservation planning should not only consider natural and biological paradigms, but also systematically take into account the size of the protected area, connectivity, the length of the boundary and the economic and social costs required to establish a protected area. Different from the expert decision-making protection priority area selection, the system protection planning is a planning method based on the mathematical simulation algorithm, the planning process needs to quantify the protection target, the protection cost and the boundary tightness.

At present, much research has been devoted to discuss the importance of integrating conservation benefits and economic costs in conservation planning. In order to enrich the idea of ​​solving this problem, this paper, based on the concept of system protection planning, applied the MARXAN model software to focus on the evaluation and protection of vacancy in Fujian Wuyishan biodiversity conservation priority area. In the study, expert evaluation and literature collection were used to select 30 kinds of plants and 20 kinds of animals as the object of protection. The results were as follows: the key area of ​protection key area in Wuyi Mountain was 5169.1 km2, which was the total area of ​​priority area 11.68%. In addition, through the comparison of the existing nature reserves in the priority area, the area of the protected area is 3895.14 km2, accounting for 8.79% of the total area of the priority area. Based on the characteristics of the priority area and the socio- Priority areas for priority areas for biodiversity conservation are identified. Priority or hotspot areas are identified to span thousands to millions of square kilometers, and priority areas for biodiversity conservation networks are developed and targeted for priority area protection And management policy measures. It is more important to improve the effectiveness of biodiversity conservation strategies such as the layout of protected areas, the sustainable use and management of natural resources, the allocation of government and international protection resources, and the overall coordination of conservation actions. The While providing an important basis for sustainable development decision-making.

Key words:System protection planning; Marxan model ;Biological diversity; Protection focus ; Protect the vacancy;

目 录

1.引言 1

1.1研究背景和意义 1

1.2生物多样性保护规划研究现状 1

1.2.1生物多样性保护规划的方法体系综述 1

1.2.2大尺度上生物多样性保护优先区域或热点区域评估 2

1.2.2.1全球尺度上生物多样性保护优先区域评估 2

1.2.2.2国家尺度上生物多样性保护优先区域评估 4

1.2.3区域尺度上保护地网络系统规划 4

1.2.4中国生物多样性保护优先区域确定和区域保护规划的 相关研究 6

1.3研究内容 7

2研究区概况 8

2.1地理位置 8

2.2地质地貌 8

2.3气候 9

2.4水系 9

2.5土壤 10

2.6 植被与生态系统 10

3 研究方法 11

3.1Marxan模型 11

3.1.1 Marxan模型介绍 11

3.2保护空缺(GAP)分析 13

3.2.1保护空缺(GAP)分析简介 13

3.2.2空缺分析基本方法与步骤 13

3.3数据来源 14

4.结果分析 14

4.1优先区域保护热点识别 14

4.1.1保护对象选取 14

4.1.2保护热点区域 15

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