不同年龄河岸植被缓冲带截留与吸收氮磷差异毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

不同年龄河岸植被缓冲带截留与吸收氮磷差异毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

水污染已经成为现代环境污染最为严峻的问题之一,工业生活废水大量直接排放到自然水体中,水体富营养化、蓝藻大爆发等等问题受到了广泛的关注。太湖富营养化治理成为热点。水体富营养化是指水体中含氮含磷物质的剧增,导致水体生物大量死亡,腐烂,污染水体的现象。河岸植被缓冲带具有渗透、吸附、分解等理化作用,可以有效降低水体中的含磷量,进而降低水体富营养化的影响。本论文旨在通过模拟农业非点源污染,设置不同宽度和林龄,主要植被类型以南林95杨和中山杉为主的河岸植被缓冲带,测定不同宽度的河岸植被缓冲带对总磷(TP)、可溶性总磷(TDP)、土壤有效磷(AP)的截留效率,再通过比对多年数据,寻找一个最佳截留效果的宽度。为减缓富营养化的治理提供了科学的依据,主要结果如下:

(1)15m宽度的河岸植被缓冲带对20cm深的地表径流中总磷(TP)及可溶性总磷(TDP)的截留效率最佳,其中TP截留率高达70%以上,TDP截留率高达65%以上。

(2)15m宽度的河岸植被缓冲带对40cm深的地表径流中总磷(TP)的截留效果最佳,30m宽度的河岸植被缓冲带对可溶性总磷(TDP)的截留效果最佳, 截留率大多在60%-80%左右。

(3)15m宽度的河岸植被缓冲带对土壤中总磷(TP)和有效磷(AP)的截留效果最佳,其中TP的截留率在30%-40%之间,AP的截留率在25%以上。

(4)无论是土壤还是地表径流中的总磷、可溶性总磷及有效磷,其截留效率随着河岸植被缓冲带的宽度增加,呈现先增加后缓慢降低的趋势。

(5)地表径流总磷和可溶性总磷均在4年生的植被河岸缓冲带的截留效果最佳,而土壤中的总磷和有效磷分别在4年生和3年生的植被河岸缓冲带的截留效果最佳。

关键词:河岸植被缓冲带;富营养化;磷素截留;磷素阻控

The effects of riparian vegetation buffer strip with different widths and ages on phosphorus retention efficiency

ABSTRACT

Nowadays,water pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems. A large number of industrial wastewater discharge to the natural water directly, which arouse water eutrophication and cyanobacteria outbreak. It also gains a lot of public attention. A plenty of nitrogen and phosphorus in water could lead death of hydrobios, which decline the quality of natural water. Numerous professional researches show that the riparian vegetation buffer zone has the physical and chemical effects, such as infiltration, adsorption, decomposition and so on, of phosphorus reduction in the water and minimize the negative influence on water eutrophication. In this thesis, by stimulating the agricultural nonpoint source pollution by setting the different widths riparian vegetation buffer strip. The main vegetation types are Poplar Nanlin 95 and Ascendens mucronatum. We will determine the retention efficiency of Total Phosphorus and Total Dissolved Phosphorus and Avialable Phosphorus of surface runoff. After analysis three-year data, we could find out a suitable width with the best phosphorus retention efficiency of riparian vegetation buffer strip. It also provide some scientific evidences of the ecological model establishment on solving the water eutrophication of Taihu Lake Basin.In order to reduce the eutrophication of governance provides a scientific basis, the main results are as follows:

(1) 15m width of the riverbank vegetation buffer for 20cm deep surface runoff of total phosphorus and soluble total phosphorus retention efficiency of the best, including TP retention rate as high as 70%, TDP rejection rate as high as 65% or more.

  1. The 15m-width riparian vegetation buffer had the best interception effect of total phosphorus in surface runoff of 40cm depth, and the retention effect of soluble total phosphorus was the best in 30m width of riverbank vegetation buffer, and TP and TDP were mostly Between 60% and 80%.
  2. The cutoff of total phosphorus and available phosphorus in soil was the best, and the rejection rate of TP was between 30% and 40%, and the rejection rate of AP was more than 25%.
  3. The total phosphorus, soluble total phosphorus and available phosphorus in both soil and surface runoff increased with the increase of the width of the vegetation buffer, which showed a general trend of decreasing first and then decreasing.

(5) The total phosphorus and soluble total phosphorus in surface runoff were the best in the 4-year-old vegetation ripple buffer, while the total phosphorus and available phosphorus in the soil were intertwined in the 4-year-old and 3-year-old vegetation ripple The best results.

Key words:riparian vegetation buffer strip;eutrophication;phosphorus retention efficiency;phosphorus interception

目 录

1 绪论…………………………………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1 前言……………………………………………………………………………………………..……1

1.2 国内外研究现状……………………………………………………………………………….……1

1.2.1河岸植被缓冲带对磷的阻控作用……………………………………………………………1

1.2.2河岸植被缓冲带对磷的拦截机制……………………………………………………………1

1.2.3宽度因子对河岸植被缓冲带截留效率的影响…………………………………………2

1.2.4植被类型对河岸植被缓冲带截留效率的影响…………………………………………2

1.2.5磷素形态对河岸植被缓冲带截留效率的影响…………………………………………3

1.3 研究目的与意义……………………………………………………………………………………3

1.4 技术路线……………………………………………………………………………………………4

2 试验设计与研究方法………………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1 试验区概况与试验设计………………………………………………………………………..……5

2.2 测定指标与方法…………………………………………………………..…………………………6

2.3分析方法…………………………………………………………………………………………7

3 结果分析与讨论……………………………………………………………………………………………7

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