炭、肥互作对喀斯特林地土壤理化性质及刺槐幼苗生长的影响毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

炭、肥互作对喀斯特林地土壤理化性质及刺槐幼苗生长的影响毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

实验采用室内土柱模拟方法,通过模拟贵州喀斯特地区的夏季高强度暴雨淋溶,探究不同添加量的生物炭与肥料混施对喀斯特石灰土土壤NH4 -N、NO3-N、可溶性TP淋溶量及微生物量C和N的影响。实验中所用的生物炭是稻壳炭,按照炭土质量比4%、8%、12%施于土壤中。实验主要结果如下:(1)4%、12%和8%的处理相比对照试验,NH4 -N的累积淋溶量分别减少了14.99%、43.17%、45.34%,均极显著低于对照试验,且添加高量生物炭对降低淋溶液中NH4 -N含量的效果更好;(2)8%生物炭添加处理的土壤,NO3-N累积淋溶量极显著高于其他处理,且高于对照试验累积淋溶量的27.93%,而4%与12%的处理土壤NO3-N淋溶量均极显著低于对照,分别减少8.76%和5.56%;(3)TP的累积淋溶量随着生物炭添加量的增大而增大,但仅添加生物炭4%的处理显著减少TP的淋溶损失量,比对照减少了32.96%,其它处理则显著增加了TP的淋溶损失量(Plt;0.01);(4)与对照实验相比,生物炭的使用显著提高了土壤微生物量C、N的水平。生物炭的添加量越大,其对土壤微生物量C、N的影响越大(Plt;0.05)。本试验结论仅是由生物炭在短期的室内模拟试验的条件下得来的,然而这种作用是否与生物炭种类以及实验时间的长短有关有必要进行更多的实验研究。

关键词:生物炭;石灰土;土壤养分淋溶;微生物量碳氮;影响

Effects of biochar on Karst calcareous

soil nutrients leaching and microbial

biomass carbon and nitrogen

ABSTRACT

By the method of laboratory simulation test and simulating the leaching of summer’s heavy rain in the Karst area of Guizhou, this experiment studied the effects of applying different amount of biochar on ammonium nitrogen(NH4 -N), nitrate nitrogen(NO3-N), soluble TP leaching quantity and the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The biochar was made from rice husk, and its application rates were 4%, 8% and 12% of soil quantity. Experimental results showed that compared with the control, the processing of 4%, 8% and 12% decreased the cumulative amount of NH4 -N leaching by 14.99%, 43.17% and 45.34%, respectively, which were significantly lower than control, and adding more amount of biochar had a better effect on decreasing the cumulative amount of NH4 -N in leachate. Under the application of 8% biochar, the cumulative amount of NO3-N leaching was significantly higher than other processing, and increased by 27.93% compared with the control, while under the application of 4% and 12% biochar, the cumulative amount of NO3-N leaching were significantly lower than control, and decreased by 8.76% and 5.56%, respectively. With the increasing amount of applied biochar, the amount of TP leaching increased. But only the processing of 4% significantly decreased the amount of TP in leachate, while other treatments significantly increased the amount of TP in leachate(Plt;0.01). Compared with the control, the applying of biochar significantly improved the level of soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen. The more biochar applied, the larger its effects on soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen(Plt;0.05). The experimental conclusion was only from biochar under the condition of indoor simulation in the short time, so whether the species of biochar materials and the length of time may cause different effects would be an issue to be investigated in the future.

Key words:biochar;calcareous soil;soil nutrients leaching; microbial biomass carbon and

nitrogen;effects

目 录

1 绪论…………………………………………………………………………………1

1.1 研究背景与意义………………………………………………………………………………1

1.2 国内外研究现状…………………………………………………………………………………2

1.2.1 生物炭概述…………………………………………………………………………………2

1.2.2 施用生物炭对土壤理化性质的影响………………………………………………………2

1.2.3 施用生物炭对土壤养分的影响……………………………………………………………3

1.2.4 施用生物炭对肥料负载及缓释作用………………………………………………………3

1.2.5 施用生物炭对土壤微生物量的影响……………………………………………………4

2 材料与方法………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1 实验材料…………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1.1 试验土壤…………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1.2 生物炭性质………………………………………………………………………………5

2.1.3 试验装置………………………………………………………………………………6

2.2 实验方法………………………………………………………………………………………6

2.2.1 实验设计………………………………………………………………………………6

2.2.2 淋溶试验………………………………………………………………………………6

2.2.3 测定指标与方法………………………………………………………………………6

2.3 数据处理………………………………………………………………………………………7

3 结果与讨论………………………………………………………………………………8

3.1 生物炭对石灰土土壤氮磷养分的影响………………………………………………………8

3.1.1 生物炭对石灰土土壤铵态氮淋溶量的影响………………………………………8

3.1.2 生物炭对石灰土土壤硝态氮淋溶量的影响………………………………………9

3.1.3 生物炭对石灰土土壤可溶性总磷(TP)淋溶量的影响………………………………10

3.2 生物炭对石灰土土壤微生物量碳氮的影响………………………………………………11

4 结论 ………………………………………………………………………………14

致谢 ………………………………………………………………………………15

参考文献 …………………………………………………………………………16

1 绪论

1.1 研究背景与意义

贵州省是世界上发育最完全的喀斯特连续地带。喀斯特出露面积达13万km2,面积占到全省土地面积的73%[1],其生态基础较为脆弱。近年来,喀斯特地区出现了一系列的生态环境问题,石漠化则是这一地区最严重的生态环境问题。产生石漠化的原因主要有两个,一是地势陡峭、暴雨发生率高等自然因素,很容易造成水土流失现象[2];二是人们长期陡坡毁林种粮的行为,造成植被的严重破坏,森林植被很难在短时间内恢复,加剧了喀斯特山地水土流失和加速了石漠化进程。有研究表明,喀斯特地区的土壤侵蚀具明显的季节性特征,某些流域的化学侵蚀速率达0.2mm/a,超出平均水平的2~3倍[3]。由于喀斯特侵蚀作用会使肥料养分淋溶加快,一方面使土壤贫瘠化,另一方面造成当地水流域富营养化,因此,对尿素、磷铵、氯化钾等速溶性化肥进行养分控释处理,减缓其释放速率,就成为现代施肥技术的一个重要发展方向。

近年来,生物炭作为土壤改良剂,能够提高土壤有机碳含量,改善土壤保水、保肥性能,减少养分损失,有益于土壤微生物栖息和活动,特别是菌根真菌,被广泛应用到农业生产。然而,生物炭在林业方面应用的研究相对较少,对土壤的改良作用大部分都针对酸性土壤,很少在碱性土壤中应用,特别是在喀斯特石灰土中研究很少。生物炭对林业用地,特别是对石灰性林业用地产生的效果值得我们去研究,这正是本实验将探究的目标。

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