苏北沿海植物群落的种类组成与多样性分析毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

苏北沿海植物群落的种类组成与多样性分析毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

淮河流域原来土地肥沃,而由于黄河泛滥造成这一流域的土壤盐碱化非常严重,主要集中在苏北一带。同时由于水灾造成了大量的灾民,他们为了生存不断地乱砍滥伐,使得淮河流域的植被破坏严重,在短短的两百年期间植被面积减少了一倍还要多,从而使水灾更易发生。

本文以淮河入海水道植物群落为研究对象,在对 82 个样地调查数据的基础上,研究淮河入海水道植物群落的物种组成及物种多样性。了解淮河入海水道植物群落的物种组成和植物生长状况及分布现状。为研究区未来植被保护及水土保持规划提供科学的依据和建议,以期合理利用研究区的植物资源。研究结果表明:

(1)研究区共有植物78种,隶属36科,其中双子叶植物31科54属61种,单子叶植物5科17属17种。其中82个样地内共有植物34种,分属18科31属。以菊科和禾本科植物为主。

(2)淮河入海水道植物群落垂直结构可划分为乔木层、灌木层、草本层以及藤本层,但由于乔木层及灌木层物种稀少,结构层次不明显。每层结构所含有的物种,乔木层最具代表性的植物是杨树(Populus),其次是刺槐(Black Locust)苦楝(Melia azedarach Linn.)。样地内灌木层有紫薇(Lagerstroemia indica L.)、冬青卫矛(Euonymus japonicus L.)和柽柳(Tamarix chinensis Lour.)等。草本层植物所占比例最多,含有的种类较其他层次比较丰富,占优势的有芦苇(Phragmites australis)、盐蒿(Artemisia halodendron)、苔草(Carex doisutepensis)。藤本植物以萝藦(Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino)、葎草(Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.)、五叶地锦(P.thomsoni)为主要物种。

(3)草本层的物种丰富度最高,其他三层丰富度均相近;Shannon-Wiener 指数(H)和 Pielou 均匀度指数(E)均为草本层gt;乔木层gt;藤本层gt;灌木层,Simpson 指数(D)为草本层gt;乔木层gt;灌木层gt;藤本层。

关键词:淮河入海口;植物群落;物种多样性;植被

Species composition and diversity of plant communities along the coast in Northern Analysis

——Huai River estuary Case

ABSTRACT

The Huaihe River had fertile land, and because the Yellow River flood caused by soil salinization of the basin is very serious, mainly concentrated in the North area. At the same time due to flood caused a lot of victims, they continue to deforestation in order to survive, so that the Huai River Basin serious damage vegetation, vegetation area in just two hundred years have more than doubled during reduced, so that the floods more likely.

Taking Huaihe Entering Ocean for the study of plant communities in 82 plots of survey data based on the study of species composition and species diversity of plant communities Huaihe Entering Ocean. Understand the composition and distribution of the status quo situation Huaihe Entering Ocean plant communities and plant growth. To provide a scientific basis and recommendations for the future protection of vegetation and soil and water conservation planning in the study area, with a view to the rational use of plant resources in the study area. The results showed that:

(1)A total of 78 kinds of plants in the study area, belonging to 36 families, of which dicotyledon 54 genera and 31 families, 61 were monocots 5 genera and 17 families and 17 species. In which a total of 82 plots of plants, 34 species belonging to 18 families and 31 genera. Asteraceae and grasses dominated.

(2)Entering Ocean Huaihe vertical structure of plant communities can be divided into tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer and liana layer, but because the tree layer and shrub species rare, hierarchy is not obvious. Each species contained in the structure, the most representative plant tree layer poplar (Populus), followed by black locust (Black Locust) Chinaberry (Melia azedarach Linn.). Within plots shrub layer Myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.), Euonymus (Euonymus japonicus L.) and tamarisk (Tamarix chinensis Lour.) And the like. Herb layer up to the proportion of species containing relatively rich compared to other levels, the dominant reed (Phragmites australis), salt wormwood (Artemisia halodendron), sedge (Carex doisutepensis). Vines with Asclepiadaceae (Metaplexis japonica (Thunb.) Makino), Humulus (Humulus scandens (Lour.) Merr.), Quinquefolia (P.thomsoni) as the main species.

(3)Highest species richness of herb layer, the other three are similar richness; Shannon-Wiener index (H) and Pielou evenness index (E) are herbaceous layergt; tree layergt; liana layergt; shrub layer, Simpson index (D) herb layergt; tree layergt; shrub layergt; liana layer.

Key words:Huaihe River estuary;Plant Communities;Species diversity;Vegetation

目 录

  1. 绪论 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

1.1 研究目的及意义. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

1.2 相关概念 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2.1 植物群落. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2.2 物种种类组成. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

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