不同驯化温度对密点麻蜥繁殖以及幼体表型的影响毕业论文_生态学毕业论文

不同驯化温度对密点麻蜥繁殖以及幼体表型的影响毕业论文

2021-04-27更新

摘 要

本研究将密点麻蜥孕期雌体分别饲养在三个恒温处理组(18,22,26℃)和一个调温处理组,测定其繁殖特征、繁殖成功率和幼体表型的组间差异,旨在探讨温度改变对爬行动物繁殖适合度的影响。结果表明(1)四个处理之间母体体长和腹长无差异,窝仔重和窝仔数也无差异;(2)四个处理组初生幼体体长、腹长、头长、头宽和体重无差异,幼体的疾跑速和最大距离无差异;(3)18℃组雌体所产初生幼体存活率远低于其他三组,但90天后幼体存活率与其他三组无显著差异;(4)90天生长后体重、体长和幼体疾跑速在任何时间节点的增长率均无处理间差异。因此可见体孕期所经历的短期热处理对母体自身和后代的适合度无较大影响,仅对初生幼体的存活率影响显著。

关键词:密点麻蜥;卵胎生;温度;雌性繁殖;幼体表型

The effects of different temperature on female reproduction and offspring phenotype of viviparous lizard, Eremias multiocellata

ABSTRACT

In this study, gravid females of Eremias multiocellata were divided into three constant temperature treatment groups(18, 22, 26℃)and a thermoregulation treatment group to determine the differences between groups of reproductive characteristics, reproductive success and offspring phenotypes. It is designed to investigate the effects of temperature changes on the reproductive fitness of reptiles .The results showed that: (1) There were no differences in maternal snout-vent length and abdomen length between the four treatments, litter mass and litter size was also no difference; (2) In all four treatment groups, snout-vent length, abdomen length, head length, head width and weight of neonates had no difference, neonates had no significant differences in sprint speed and maximum distance; (3) The survival of neonates produced by the female under 18 ℃ group was far less than that under the other three groups, but 90 days later neonates survival have no significant difference in four groups; (4) Weight, snout-vent length and neonate sprint speed had no difference in growth rates between processing nodes at any time after 90 days of growth. We can see that the short-term thermal treatment female body experienced has no great impact on maternal and offspring fitness during pregnancy, only neonate survival is significantly affected.

Key words:Eremias multiocellata; Viviparous; temperature; Female reproduction; Offspring phenotype

目 录

前言 – 1 –

1 文献综述 – 2 –

1.1 密点麻蜥概述 – 2 –

1.1.1 分布情况 – 2 –

1.1.2 研究概况 – 2 –

1.2 蜥蜴类的卵胎生 – 3 –

1.2.1 卵胎生繁殖模式简介 – 3 –

1.2.2 卵胎生繁殖模式的进化起源及生物学意义 – 4 –

1.2.3 蜥蜴类卵胎生进化研究进展 – 4 –

1.3 温度对爬行动物繁殖和幼体表型的影响 – 4 –

1.3.1 温度对胚胎的影响 – 4 –

1.3.2 温度对繁殖成功率的影响 – 5 –

1.3.3 温度对幼体特征的影响 – 5 –

1.3.4 温度对幼体行为的影响 – 5 –

2 材料与方法 – 6 –

2.1 实验材料的采集与饲养 – 6 –

2.2 雌性繁殖 – 6 –

2.3 初生幼体表型测定 – 6 –

2.4 幼体饲养 – 7 –

2.5 数据分析 – 7 –

3 结果 – 8 –

3.1 温度对雌体繁殖的影响 – 8 –

3.2 温度对初生幼体表型的影响 – 8 –

3.3 温度对幼体存活率的影响 – 9 –

3.3.1 初生幼体存活率组间差异 – 9 –

3.3.2 90天幼体存活率组间差异 – 10 –

3.4 温度对幼体生长的影响 – 11 –

结论与讨论 – 12 –

致 谢 – 13 –

参考文献 – 14 –

前言

环境变化(气候、生境等改变)对动物自然种群有重要的影响,这种影响与特定物种的生活史、性别结构、种群大小、种群年龄和行为能力等有关。其中温度是影响动物发育性状和表型的主要环境因子。爬行动物的环境敏感性高,温度作为关键环境因素能影响爬行动物的生长发育、繁殖、热生理、行为和后代表型等[1]。胚胎发育期最易受到温度的影响,胚胎在适宜温度条件下才能发育成表型优化、适合度高的个体,胚胎经历的热环境对后代表型、个体后续发育、生存和繁殖亦具有重要影响[2]

卵生种类的胚胎发育受限于外界热环境,极端气候区的热条件通常限制许多卵生物种分布于其中(比如外界温度波动超出胚胎能够耐受的范围、温度的平均值低于或高于胚胎能够耐受的平均水平)。卵胎生作为较进化的繁殖模式,其相对卵生种类的优势为:孕期雌体能通过行为调温、辅以生理调温为胚胎发育提供相对适宜的热环境从而提高胚胎成活率,而由母体调温行为诱导的后代表型特征的变异将有利于增加后代的适合度[3]。已有许多研究证明卵胎生蜥蜴雌体所经历的热环境能直接影响幼体表型。这些优势使得卵胎生蜥蜴能够适应不同的生境,得以分布于高海拔、寒漠等极端气候区。

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